Udayapur District is one of 14 districts of Province No. 1 of eastern Nepal. The district, with Triyuga as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,063 km2 (797 sq mi) and in 2001 had a population of 287,689, in 2011 of 317,532.

The district border of Udayapur is drawn by Natural border with rivers and hills. Koshi river in the east of the district separates it from Sunsari District, Sun Kosi river in the north draw a borderline which separates it from Bhojpur and Khotang. Sindhuli district lies in the west across the Tawa Khola and foothills of Shivalik in the south separates it from outer terai of Siraha and Saptari. Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies in the east occupying the area of Udayapur, Sunsari and Saptari District.

According to the former administrative divisions of Nepal, Udayapur falls in Eastern Development Region in Sagarmatha Zone. Udayapur district also has two waterfalls named as “Odari kholako jharna” (156m) and “khuwa jharna”(71m).

Before the unification of modern Nepal by Shah kings. Udayapur District was under Sen dynasty. The Kingdom name was Chaudandi and capital of the Kingdom was Udayapurgadhi. The last king of the Chaudandi was Karna Sen who fled to Bijayapur when Gorkha army evaded and captured the Sen Kingdom Chaudandi. Before 1972, Panchawati was Headquarter of Udayapur District, it moved to Gaighat in 1972.

Udayapur district is surrounded by Mahabharat hills from north and Shiwalik from the south, whereas both hills meet together by west which forms the region a valley Udayapur valley. Udayapur valley is about 30 km (19 mi) long and from 2 to 4 km (1.2 to 2.5 mi) wide, it is drained by the Triyuga river flowing east to join the Koshi river.

Forest cover takes up 67% of the total land area of the district. 28% of the land is cultivated. Small and large river and ponds remain the main source of water in the district. Ponds like Rauta Pokhari, Suke Pokhari, Tapli Pokhari, Jogidaha Chure Forest Pond and Jhilke Pokhari are key water resources in the district.

The district does not possess larger lakes. Triyuga is the largest river in this district. Other two major rivers are Tawa Khola from the Western side and Vaidyanath River from mid-side unite with Tawa River. Other rivers in the district are Kakaru Khola, Yari Khola, Rakula, Baruwa Khola, Andheri, Bahadura Khola and Rasuwa Khola. Sunkosi, Saptakosie, Kamala rivers lie on the district border.

Climate Zone Elevation Range % of Area
Lower Tropical below 300 meters (1,000 ft) 33.7%
Upper Tropical 300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
Subtropical 1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.
Temperate 2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.


According to the census of 2011, the total population of Udaypur district is 317,532. Major ethnicities in the district are Chhetri (21.01%), Rai (17.09%), Magar (14.4%), Tharu (8.3%), Brahmin (7.31%) and others (32%). The literacy rate is 53.31 per cent (CBS, 2001). 51.8% of the population speak Nepali, 11.6% Magar, 7.4% Tharu, 6.3% Chamling, 5.8% Tamang, 4.0% Maithili, 3.7% Bantawa, 2.7% Rai, 1.8% Danuwar, 1.1% Newari and 0.5% Puma as their first language.

42.8% of the population in the district speak Nepali and 0.5% Magar as their second language.

Triyuga: The Headquarters of Udaypur

Triyuga is an urban municipality out of 4 urban municipalities located in the Udayapur district of the Province No. 1 of Nepal. Gaighat is the headquarter of the municipality. According to the 1991 Nepal census, it had a population of 55,291. According to the 2011 Nepal census, Triyuga had 87,557 inhabitants. It is divided into 16 wards. Triyuga Municipality was established on B.S. Chaitra 13, 2053 (26 March 1997). It was named after Triyuga River.

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38 thoughts on “Udayapur || A District with Natural Borders”
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