Parsa District is a part of Province No. 2 in Terai plain. It is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Birganj as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,353 km2 (522 sq mi) and has a population (2001) of 497,219. According to the locals, Parsa is named after Parsagadhi temple situated in the district.

Climate Zone Elevation Range % of Area
Lower Tropical below 300 meters (1,000 ft) 74.7%
Upper Tropical 300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.


At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Parsa District had a population of 601,017. Of these, 78.1% spoke Bhojpuri, 6.4% Nepali, 5.1% Maithili, 3.8% Tharu, 2.2% Urdu, 1.3% Tamang, 0.8% Rajasthani and 0.7% Newari as their first language. 30.4% of the population in the district spoke Nepali, 5.4% Bhojpuri and 4.9% Hindi as their second language.

VDC/s and Municipalities (blue) in Parsa District The district consists of one metropolitan city, three urban municipalities and ten rural municipalities. These are as follows:

  1. Birgunj Metropolitan
  2. Bahudarmai Municipality
  3. Parsagadhi Municipality
  4. Pokhariya Municipality
  5. Bindabasini Rural Municipality
  6. Dhobini Rural Municipality
  7. Chhipaharmai Rural Municipality
  8. Jagarnathpur Rural Municipality
  9. Jirabhawani Rural Municipality
  10. Kalikamai Rural Municipality
  11. Pakaha Mainpur Rural Municipality
  12. Paterwa Sugauli Rural Municipality
  13. Sakhuwa Prasauni Rural Municipality
  14. Thori Rural Municipality

Birjung- The headquarters of Parsa

Birgunj is a metropolitan city in Parsa District in Province No. 2 of southern Nepal. It lies 135 km (84 mi) south of the capital Kathmandu, attached in the north to Raxaul in the border of the Indian state of Bihar. As an entry point to Nepal from Patna and Kolkata, it is known as the “Gateway to Nepal”.

The town has significant economic importance for Nepal as most of the trade with India is via Birgunj and the Indian town of Raxaul. Tribhuvan Highway links Birgunj to Nepal’s capital, Kathmandu. Birganj was one of the first three municipalities formed during the rule of Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana.

It was declared a Metropolitan City on 22 May 2017 along with Biratnagar and Pokhara. Birgunj is currently the second-largest city in the Terai region of Nepal after Biratnagar and Birgunj is the sixth most populated metropolis of the nation.

Birgunj was established as a conglomerate of several villages in and around Gahawa Mai Temple. Gahawa Mai Temple remains the epicentre of the town. The settlement was named after the Rana Prime Minister Bir Shamsher, thus acquiring the name Birgunj.

Birgunj is located in the Terai plain which is the northern part of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Birgunj metropolitan city has an elongated shape. The variation in altitude is in the range of 78 m to 95 m when moving from south to north of Birgunj. Although the range of altitude variation is small, there is a high micro-topographical variation. The city lies about 90 m above sea level. Quaternary sediments are mainly found in the area. Soil is very fertile that consists of the mixture of clay, silt and sand.

The climatic condition is sub-tropical monsoon with a very hot and wet summer. The mean annual temperature ranges from 23.8 to 24.5 °C (74.8 to 76.1 °F). The annual rainfall ranges from about 1,300 to 2,800 mm (51 to 110 in) with an average of 1,800 mm (71 in). Majority of the precipitation occurs during June, July, August and September.

History wrote in 1964 when Birgunj Sugar Factory Ltd. was established by the Government of Nepal in collaboration with the Soviet Union (at present, Russia) with an initial crushing capacity of 1,000 metric tons which later increased to 1,500 metric tons (Rajak, 2006). This was the first sugar mill established in the public sector. Later on, this mill was liquidated due to heavy losses.

Birgunj is a major business centre of Nepal, especially for trade with India. Almost all trade with India occurs through this route. The Indian border town of Raxaul has become one of the busiest towns for heavy transportation due to high trade volume. With a large number of industries set on the Birgunj-Pathlaiya industrial corridor, Birgunj produces a wide range of products such as pharmaceuticals, textiles, vegetable ghee, plastic, steel, plastic, cigarettes, aluminium, among others. Almost 56% of the total products of Birgunj are exported to the Indian state of Bihar.

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By Satyal

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