Province No. 2 (proposed names: Madhes or Mithila/Bhojpura)(Nepali/Maithili: प्रदेश नं० २) is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal’s second-most populous province and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 to the east, Bagmati Pradesh to the north, and India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it the most densely populated province of Nepal.
The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve act as provincial demarcation borders between Province No. 2 and Province No. 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Wildlife Reserve) acts as a provincial demarcation border between Province No. 2 and Province No. 3 in the west.
The province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province’s population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bajjika, and Nepali.
The Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham, is a center for religious and cultural tourism. It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled the Mithila region in ancient times.
The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal. The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial center and the only metropolitan city in the province.
As per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister.